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Chief Technical Officer


2.1 Peoplemeters
2.1.1 Advantages of peoplemeters
2.1.2 Disadvantages of peoplemeters

2.2 Seven-day Diary
2.2.1 Advantages of the 7-day diary
2.2.2 Disadvantages of the 7-day diary

2.3 Telephone interviewing
2.3.1 Advantages of telephone interviewing
2.3.2 Disadvantages of telephone interviewing

2.4 Mail/Postal Surveys
2.4.1 Advantages of postal surveys
2.4.2 Disadvantages of mail surveys


4.1 The Universe

4.2 The sample
4.2.1 Random sampling
4.2.2 Stratification
4.2.3 Systematic sampling
4.2.4 Cluster sampling
4.2.5 Disproportionate sampling
4.2.6 Sample size
4.2.7 Substitution

4.3 Questionnaire Design

4.4 Fieldwork Standards

4.5 Different Audience Measures





There is a general danger that users of Market Research data will misinterpret results and thereby create confusion in the minds of interested parties. It is also possible for surveys to be conducted in such a manner that the results will not provide data that can be reliably used for their intended purpose. This scenario is especially true for media audience research and therefore SAARF has been asked to produce a summary of best demonstrated research practice to estimate television audiences, that can provide authoritative guidelines to the marketing industry.

The need for such a document has increased in recent times. The Independent Broadcasting Authority has recently granted a new commercial television license, thereby creating the potential for more fragmented television audiences than hitherto. Naturally each station wishes to determine the size and demographic characteristics of its audience and therefore it is vital, not only that the credibility of SAARF's Television Audience Measurement System (TAMS) "currency" is maintained, but also that the newcomer to the television industry is made aware of the pitfalls of conducting inappropriate market research. These comments are written at a time before the new station has commenced broadcasting, so that they will have the opportunity to ensure that, which ever research they may commission, meet the recommended technical criteria.

The TAMS Panel of households is designed to measure national television audiences in private households with television and mains electricity. Hostel dwellers are excluded. All members of these households, including children 4 to 14 years and visitors, form the sample for the SAARF TAMS research.

Having years of experience in doing media audience research, SAARF's aim with this document is to provide guidelines which station owners can use to plan and conduct their own research.

SAARF also invites all station owners to consult with us before finalising their research brief.


2.1 Peoplemeters
Since the early eighties, peoplemeters have become the most commonly used method worldwide to estimate television audiences. There are also various research contractors providing their own hardware and software to measure television audiences electronically. All the current systems used what is commonly known as active technology, which means that panel members have to log-in when they are viewing, and log-out when they stop viewing, by pressing a button on a remote control unit which is provided.

Because this method, which relies on the cooperation of household members to press their buttons, is not regarded in many counties as the ultimate solution, various research providers have experimented for many years with developing a 'passive' technology where no activity from panel members is required to register them as viewers and where the system does that automatically. Different technologies such as using face recognition, movement or body heat have been experimented with, but as yet no such system is operational anywhere in the world.

Because there are a variety of peoplemeter system in the world which each uses its own technology, a need has developed over the years to set certain international standards. A document titled "Global Guidelines for Television Audience Measurement" by the Audience Research Methods (ARM) Group, provides guidelines in this regard and can be consulted in the SAARF Library. This document provides full details about standards as far as peoplemeter systems are concerned, and consequently, no further attention is given in this document to the requirements which the SAARF TAMS Panel has to meet Furthermore, the TAMS System has been scrutinised by an independent international consultant early in 1998 an has been described as a "good but ageing system." The recommendations of this consultant have been or are being implemented currently. The SAARF Board has already approved increasing the current panel and gradually replacing our current meters.

Any further details about the SAARF TAMS research can be obtained from the TAMS Technical Report, or from SAARF directly.

2.1.1 Advantages of peoplemeters

Because viewing is registered second-by-second it is possible to accurately estimate the audiences of any event, irrespective of the duration of that event. As will become evident later on other methods are limited to quarter hour data. Consequently, it is possible to calculate the audiences of individual breaks and spots, of advertising campaigns, etc.

Because peoplemeters monitor actual behaviour continuously, it is possible to estimate the audiences of specific events, not average behaviour like when using other measurement techniques. This makes it possible to report audiences for each episode of programme series, not an average across more than one episode.

By doing post campaign analysis after a campaign has been flighted, the success of the campaign can be evaluated in terms of whether the planned target audience had been achieved.

Another important advantage of peoplemeters is the speed of reporting. The TAMS results are usually available on Fridays for the reporting week ending the previous Sunday. If required by the industry, it is also possible to provide overnight ratings the day after the event. SAARF has done this, for instance, to report the local audience to Lady Diana's funeral last year.

2.1.2 Disadvantages of Peoplemeters

Peoplemeter panels are limited to in-home viewing in private households with television and mains electricity, whereas other methods can estimate total viewing, including out-of-home viewing and viewing of battery operated sets.

Because the peoplemeter equipment are expensive and because it is expensive to operate the system, peoplemeter samples are usually smaller than when another method is used. The limitations of small samples are well known and will be discussed later.

2.2 Seven-day Diary

The 7-day leave-behind and self-recording diary method (such as the SAARF RAMS Diaries) is still used in countries which do not have a peoplemeter system to estimate television audiences. As peoplemeters do, the diary also monitors actual behaviour rather than recall of past behaviour. The other methods which are discussed further-on relay on recall of past behaviour.

Diary respondents are requested to record their viewing, and usually also radio listening, for each station they have viewed/listened to, by quarter hour. Because the respondent has to fill in the diary himself/herself, it is essential that diary-keepers should be literate. Not withstanding the high incidence of illiteracy, particularly in rural areas of South Africa, a diary can be used. The lack of literacy can be overcome by using either a literate household member or a neighbour to assist the Diary respondent in completing the Diary. Appendix A shows an example of a SAARF RAMS Diary page.

2.2.1 Advantages of the 7- Day diary

As mentioned earlier, the diary does not rely on recall of past behaviour. Recall errors and the effect of memory decay is reduced.

Because respondents provide information for a seven-day period, weekly cumulative audiences and weekly reach and frequency can be calculated.

Separate and comparable information is available for each day of the week, ie. Monday, Tuesday, through to Sunday.

2.2.2 Disadvantage of the 7-Day Diary

The research relies on the cooperation of respondents to enter their viewing/listening correctly and promptly. In practice it is known that late entries and forgetting to enter data may occur. However, because the respondent is aware that he/she has to record the time and station, the impact is minimal.

To reduce the impact of atypical events on audience levels, it is advisable to balance the fieldwork across a number of weeks. From 1997 the RAMS Diaries spanned the entire year, with fieldwork on every day of the year, excluding weeks over the Christmas and New Year Holidays.

2.3 Telephone interviewing

Telephone research is an acceptable method for obtaining television audience information, but it has certain limitations. Next to peoplemeters and diaries, it is frequently used. Particularly in South Africa, where the penetration of telephones is low in certain sectors of the population, it cannot be used for the entire population. Telephone interviewing relies on recall and it is not advisable to expect from the respondent accurate recall for more than one day ('yesterday'). Experience has shown that respondents tend to rather recall habitual than actual behaviour.

2.3.1 Advantages of telephone interviews

It is cheaper than personal metering or interviewing. However, because of the limitation that recall is not advisable for a seven day period, surveys which use telephone interviewing use balanced samples for each day of the week. Consequently, seven interviews are required to obtain seven-day information as can be done with one diary. Consequently, telephone interviewing samples will have to be much larger than diary samples.

A telephone survey can be completed in a relatively short time. However, to reduce the impact of atypical events, interviewing should be spread across a number of weeks to obtain an average figure as opposed to for one week only.

2.3.2 Disadvantages of telephone interviewing

The reliance on telephone penetration has already been pointed out, as well as the larger sample requirements.

It is recommended that the duration of telephone interviews should not exceed 15 minutes.

The lack of the opportunity to use prompt material is an important factor to keep in mind when telephone interviewing is done. Together with the reliance on recall, the researcher is obliged to rely on unprompted recall or to read out all the possible stations. Prompted recall has proved to be the more reliable method.

2.4 Mail/postal surveys

This research method entails mailing questionnaires to a sample of 'potential' respondents. It is relatively inexpensive, assuming a sufficient response rate is obtained.

2.4.1 Advantages of Postal Surveys

Possible interviewer biases do not exist.

The geographic distribution of the sample does not affect the cost. Mail surveys can reach a geographically dispersed sample at the same cost that would apply to a smaller area.

As has been mentioned already, mail surveys are an inexpensive way to collect data.

2.4.2 Disadvantages of Mail surveys

The universe is limited to respondents with a reasonable degree of literacy and with residential postal addresses.

The most important shortcoming of mail surveys is a low response rate. Furthermore, it is usually almost impossible to determine the representativeness of the response because of possible differential response rates, even if information about the universe is available. It is impossible to determine whether respondents and non-respondents are similar.

Because the questionnaire is the only means of communication, misunderstandings can easily occur. The physical appearance of the questionnaire, its format, layout and the wording of the questions are extremely important.

One is reliant on the efficiency of the postal service.

A number of areas have no or only a rudimentary postal service.


In most of the queries which SAARF receives regarding audience levels, reference is made to the number of competition entrants, telephone calls or letters received, or people who made financial or other contributions.

All these results are based on a self-selected sample and cannot be grossed up or generalised to the universe. Such samples are statistically known as non-probability samples and conclusions can only be made for that sample. For instance, it is valid to conclude that people who entered for a competition were viewing when the competition was announced. Whether they were viewing at other times and on other days cannot be deduced from the fact that they have entered for the competition, neither can it be claimed that they each represent a certain number of other, similar viewers. The same applies to people who phoned or wrote to the station.

Because of the invalidity of such sources as the above to estimate audience sizes, this problem is discussed at almost every international media audience research conference. Even for more qualitative purposes such as views expressed regarding the quality or liking of programmes, the results cannot be generalised. It is again the views of some listeners and others may not agree. At best, letters, phone calls and competition entrants can be used to assist in the design of research.

Another source of concern is that audience estimates are sometimes based on unproven, unrelated or unclear assumptions. One such example is to obtain information about the population size, then assume that a certain percentage would view a television station.


4.1 The Universe

For any research for which a sample is used to estimate the incidence of certain aspects of the population - such as watching television- it is essential that the universe which is researched be defined and described. Before this step has been executed, it is impossible to design a sample which represents that population.

Many sources of information on the South African population exist. The most detailed source is the latest Population Census of the Central Statistical Services. The most recent Census was done during October 1996 and top-line results will be available in September 1998. However, censuses are only conducted about every five years and because of population growth, deaths and migration, the information becomes outdated quickly. Institutions such as the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA), the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), the Institute for Future Research (University of Stellenbosch), market research agencies, and many others regularly update population estimates by using mortality, fertility and migration trends. All AMPS surveys use population data from an international demographic contractor, supported by other sources, to estimate the universe.

It is recommended that the different available sources of estimates of the population be investigated, and the best one be selected to obtain details for a specific target market. Such information would make it possible to not only define the population which forms the target market, but also describe them by means of demographic and geographic characteristics. Such information will also make it possible to design a sample with high precision.

4.2 Sample

Apart from the size of the sample, the way in which it is designed is also extremely important. In this regard, it is important that a reliable and credible source or sources of population information be used to design the sample. When detailed information is available on the universe or population that forms the target market, it is possible to design a sample which can be grossed-up to estimate the incidence of viewing for the defined population.

There are a variety of standard sampling methods available which can be used for this purpose. In statistical terms they are referred to as probability samples. A probability sample implies that each person in the universe should have a fixed probability, which can also be calculated, to be selected in the sample.
Other techniques, commonly referred to as non-probability sample designs, should be avoided when the aim of the research is to estimate, or quantify the audience. Quota sampling is one such a method.

The following probability sampling methods can be considered, either separately or in tandem.

4.2.1 Random sampling

A random sample is basically a sample which is selected by chance. The principle involved is the same as when competition entries are placed in a container and winners blindly drawn.

Statistical handbooks or computer programmes can be used to generate random numbers. If a sample of 1 000 has to be drawn from a universe of 10 000, then 1 000 numbers which fall between 1 and 10 000 are drawn after each unit in the population has been numbered. The units which each of these numbers represent are then identified and they form the sample.

Although this method is statistically regarded as a probability sampling technique, it does not guarantee perfect representativeness. The representativeness of the sample can be improved by using stratification or systematic sampling, which are described below.

4.2.2 Stratification

If it is known (or expected) that viewing levels will or may be different among different sub-populations, for instance in different towns, cities, suburbs, or for different demographic sub-groups, e.g. males and females or different age groups, then the incidence of such variables can be controlled to coincide with their incidence in the population. For example, if the geographical distribution of the target market of a city/town is known, the sample can be designed to represent these suburbs proportionately. Or if, for instance, 40% of the population is in the age group 16-24 years, the sample can be designed in such a way that 40% of the sample also falls in this group. This procedure is known as stratification.

More than one variable can be used simultaneously or interlaced to stratify the sample, in which case it is referred to as multi-stage-stratification, such as in the fictitious example below.

In the above example that covers four suburbs, 10% of the universe is living in Suburb A and is in the age group 16-24. When stratification by suburb and age is used, 10% of the sample must also be 16-24 years and living in Suburb A, and so on. More variables can be added to the above matrix, in which case the number of cells will increase. The number of cells is determined by the product of the number of categories which is used for the individual variables. In the above example, 4 suburbs and 4 age groups are used and provide a matrix with 4 x 4 = 16 cells.

4.2.3 Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling is another way to ensure that the sample is spread across the entire population, and not biased towards certain sub-populations and under-representing others.

If a systematic sample of say 1 000 has to be drawn from a universe of say 10 000, the following procedure will be followed:

Determine the sampling interval :
If 1 000 numbers have to be drawn from 10 000, every 10th number (universe sample) has to be used to ensure that the sample is spread evenly/systematically between 1 and 10 000. The sampling interval in this case is 10.

Choose a random starting point :
For the above example, the sampling interval is ten, which means that every 10th number must be selected, starting from a random starting point from 1 to 10. This point is chosen as is described under random sampling.

Selecting the sample :
Say that 7 is selected as the random starting point, then numbers 7, 17, 27, 37, .......through to 9 997 will be used, resulting in 1 000, the intended sample size.

4.2.4 Cluster sampling

Cluster sampling is usually used for economic reasons. If any of the previous three methods are used alone, particularly if a large geographic area has to be covered, the sampling points will be spread individually across the entire area which would increase the cost. Cluster sampling can be used in such cases to reduce the cost of travel.

Cluster sampling implies that fewer than the required points be selected and that more than one respondent be selected in the vicinity of each point. Such points are referred to as clusters.

However, it should be remembered that cluster sampling decreases the precision of the sample to the universe and it is recommended that a statistician be consulted before cluster sampling is used.

4.2.5 Disproportionate sampling

When it is important to obtain a large enough sample for separate analysis of one or more small sub-populations, for instance to report audiences separately by province, the smaller provinces with an insufficient number of respondent, such provinces can be over-sampled. Before reporting the results, such over-sampling should be down-weighted to reflect the correct proportion in the total population. To retain statistical validity, the level of over-sampling should preferably not exceed a ratio of 2:1.

4.2.6 Sample size

There is a general misconception that the size of the sample is determined by the size of the universe and that large populations can only be researched by using large samples. Statistically, there is no direct relationship between the size of the universe and the size of the sample required to estimate certain aspects of that universe accurately. The size of the sample is determined by the following factors:

The number of factors that can cause variation in the results. If it is, for instance, expected that everybody in the population will respond more or less the same, a small sample will accurately estimate this response. However, if it is expected that males and females will respond differently, a larger sample is required. If it is expected that males and females as well as people of different ages will behave differently, an even larger sample will be required.

The level of detail in which the results will be reported. If the aim of the survey is only to report the behaviour of the total population, it can be done relatively accurately by using a small sample. If, however, it is important to report details of certain sub-populations separately, e.g. provinces, demographic sub-groups such as gender and age, a much larger sample is required.

The level of accuracy of the results which is required. Because there is an inversely proportional correlation between the size of the sample and the accuracy of the results, a large sample should provide more accurate results than a smaller one.

Given the above, the following minimum requirements are usually set:

Each weighting cell should preferably contain at least 20 respondents.

The ratio of weights should not be more than 2:1 if disproportionate sampling is used.

Each reporting cell should have at least 40 respondents.

4.2.7 Substitution

For a variety of reasons, it always happens that not all the initially selected respondents will form part of the final sample. Some respondents will refuse to participate, while others might be difficult to contact. To compensate for this and to ensure that the final sample size and structure will be the same as the selected sample, substitution can be used. However, if the level of substitution is high and if it is not controlled properly, it can bias the results. The following requirements are usually set:

Substitutes must be selected by using a probability sampling technique, similar to the procedures which were used to select the initial sample.

Substitution should only be allowed when it is absolutely sure that the initially selected respondent cannot be included. This implies that every attempt should be made to include persons who are difficult to contact. Usually, three call-backs are required on different days of the week and at different times before substitution is allowed.

When reporting the results, the level of substitution should be provided and, if it is high, the possible effect on the results should be indicated.

Finally, it is recommended that a statistician be consulted to ensure a proper sample design and substitution procedure.

4.3 Questionnaire design

A questionnaire which is used to collect valid information is more than just a list of questions. Therefore, it is important that attention be given to not only the formulation of every question, but also to how they are arranged to ensure a logical, simple, understandable and unbiased interview. Furthermore, it is important that the questionnaire be tested and improved in a mini-sample before it is used in the final survey. The following guidelines can be used:

Use the language of the target group. This does not only imply that the interview should be conducted in the respondent's language of preference, but also that the level of the language should be simple and easily understandable. Researchers frequently tend to communicate using marketing language rather than common language.

Keep the questions - and the questionnaire - as short as possible. Avoid asking 'nice to know' questions which do not really contribute to the aim of the survey.

Biasing through asking 'leading' questions must be avoided. Even a statement such as "I am doing this research on behalf of ....(name of a television station or station(s) owner).." can bias the results.

Care should be taken to avoid general research problems such as over-claiming on certain questions, under-claiming on others, the probability of a rotation effect, and many others. Consultation with experienced researchers in media audience research will help to reduce such possible biases.

4.4 Fieldwork Standards

Data collection is the most crucial aspect of all research, because mistakes which are made when collecting the information, very often cannot be corrected later. Therefore, it is important that:

1. Interviewers be properly selected during recruitment to ensure that they have the abilities which are required to do high quality work;
2. All selected interviewers should be trained properly in the basics of scientific data collecting;
3. Interviewers should be briefed in the application of every specific questionnaire, and pilot interviews should be done before they commence with the real interviews;
4. Strict control measures should be applied to ensure that respondent errors, interviewer mistakes, misunderstanding of the questions and situation errors are limited.
5. To ensure a high level of accuracy of the results, a minimum of 10% of all interviews work are usually checked back. During the back-checking, both the selection of the sampling point and of the correct respondent must be checked, as well as that the information in the questionnaire has been recorded accurately.

4.5 Different Audience Measures

The following audience measures can be used, particularly when diaries are used:

Average -hour Audience :
The average -hour audience is an arithmetic (the ordinary method) average across more than one -hour. It is calculated by adding-up the audiences of the quarter hours to be reflected, and dividing by the number of quarter hours for which the numbers were added. This measure is usually used to estimate advertising channel audiences, which can be used in determining advertising rates. This figure is used to estimate the potential audience which would be reached if an advertisement is placed in that time slot.

Net Audience :
The net audience reflects the number of different people who viewed during a specified time period. In the advertising industry this is referred to as the 'reach' or 'coverage'. To calculate the net reach, persons who viewed during two or more quarter hours during the time under consideration, are counted only once.

Gross audience :
The gross audience of a channel or programme is the sum of the relevant quarter hour audiences, irrespective of duplication of persons. The same person is counted once for each quarter hour (or part of a quarter hour) that he/she watched during the channel or programme. If this figure is divided by the net audience, the average duration of viewing is obtained.

Cumulative audience :
When audiences are calculated across more than one day, for instance Monday to Friday, it can either be done by calculating the arithmetic average, or by calculating a cumulative audience. The cumulative audience is the net audience of the first day in the calculation, plus new viewers on the other days. It is, in other words, the net or unduplicated audience across more than one day.

The above audience measures are related. For instance, if there is no flow of audience during a time-slot, in other words if all persons who viewed at the beginning still view at the end, and no new viewers entered during the time-slot, the average -hour audience and the net audience will be the same. In this example, the average duration of viewing will be the same as the duration of the time-slot under consideration. If, for instance, the net audience is twice as large as the average -hour figure, then the average viewer has watched for only half of the total time.

When audience estimates are quoted, it is essential that the measure used also be mentioned. The average Monday to Friday and Cumulative Monday to Friday audiences usually differ. Similarly, the average daily audience will differ from the net daily audiences; the average 7-day and cumulative 7-day audiences will differ, etc. Without knowing which measure is referred to, it is impossible to correctly interpret the data.

In the SAARF TAMS reports and computer tapes, TVRs are used as the audience measure. Full details are provided in the TAMS Technical Report and, consequently, no attention is given to calculating ARs in this document.


Because the aim of media planning basically is to select those stations which reach as many of a specific target market (referred to as the 'reach') a given number of times (called the frequency) in a certain time period (e.g. seven days), research which does not provide a reach and frequency estimate will be of little value for selling advertising time.

When a seven-day diary is used, the daily reach can be calculated (net audience) for every single day, and for any combination of days (cumulative reach) up to seven days. The frequency is the number of days on which a person viewed at a specific time.
When telephone interviewing is done and recall of only 'yesterday' viewing is used (as has been advised earlier), the frequency of viewing across more than one day as well as the cumulative reach cannot be calculated. Statistical models will then have to be used to estimate the total unduplicated audience and the frequency at which they will be reached.


As in many other countries, the South African Market Research Industry strives for a high standard of research, as well as to protect the interests of the different stake-holders. Most of the leading researchers are members of the Southern African Market Research Association (SAMRA). SAMRA is a professional Association and has a code of conduct, to which its members subscribe. The stakeholders are the general public who provide the information, the client who pays for it, and the researcher.

Individual researchers who are members of SAMRA are obliged, to the best of their ability, to ensure that the research practitioner(s) with which they are associated and the people conducting research on their behalf adhere to this Code of Conduct. More information on SAMRA can be obtained from them at:

P O Box 91879 Tel: (011) 482-1419
AUCKLAND PARK Fax: (011) 482-4609


The South African Advertising Research Foundation was founded in 1974 as a non-profit industry body. SAARF was formed because of a need in the marketing and advertising communities for a comprehensive, unbiased, reliable, regular and technically excellent media audience survey. Its purpose is to provide information about the population's use of the media, products, and services so as to enable reliable targeting for advertising purposes. The data are in such a format that it is used, among others, for the buying and selling of advertising time and space in the media and for strategic editorial and programme planning.

Over the years, the All Media and Products Surveys (SAARF AMPS), the SAARF Radio Audience Measurement Diary Surveys (SAARF RAMS) and the Television Audience Measurement System (SAARF TAMS) have established themselves as reliable, valid and credible research vehicles. Apart from commissioning the above surveys, SAARF also assists media owners, advertisers and advertising agencies in a series of other areas such as training in the use of AMPS, RAMS and TAMS data.

SAARF's mission is to serve its members, and other interested persons and bodies are invited to liaise with SAARF about any aspect related to media audience, market and marketing and advertising research.

SAARF issues from time to time press releases in which television audience results are published. Such press releases will comment on television viewing levels and viewing trends in general terms, not on the performance of specific stations. Station owners who wish to issue press releases or newsletters with information about their specific stations(s) are invited to consult with SAARF in this regard to ensure that the information is interpreted correctly.

The members of the SAARF TAMS Council, who are representative of the television, advertising and marketing industries, have also committed themselves to assist SAARF in ensuring that the SAARF television audience data are used correctly.


a. SAARF TAMS Technical Report, South African Advertising Research Foundation (SAARF, Johannesburg, 1998.

b. ARF Guidelines Handbook, Advertising Research Foundation (ARF), New York, 1990.

c. Description of Methodology, The Arbitron Company, USA, 1992.

d. Minimum Standards for Electronic Media Ratings Research, Electronic Media Ratings Council, New York, 1994.

e. SAMRA Yearbook, Southern African Market Research Association, Johannesburg, 1996.

f. Towards Harmonization of Television Audience Measurement, European Broadcasting Union (EBU), Geneva, 1993.

g. 1995 Report on Radio and Television Audience Measurement in Europe, European Society of Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR), Amsterdam, 1995.

h. Global Guidelines for Television Audience Measurement, Audience Research Method (ARM) Group, sponsored by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), Geneva, 1998.

The above publications can be consulted in the SAARF Library.

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